|Ion Exchange Resin as a Taste Masking Agent|
|Life Sciences - Life Science Article|
|Written by R.Margret Chandira|
|Wednesday, 22 April 2009|
Resent Aspects of Ion Exchange Resin used as a Taste Masking Agent-An Overview
Ion exchange resins are solid and suitably insoluble high molecular weight polyelectrolyte that can exchange their mobile ions of equal charge with the surrounding medium. The resulting ion exchange is reversible and stiochiometric with the displacement of one ionic species by another. Synthetic ion exchange resin have been used in pharmacy and medicine for taste masking or controlled release of drug as early as 1950 s.
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Being high molecular weight water insoluble polymers, the resins are not absorbed by the body and are therefore inert. The long-term safety of ion exchange resins, even while ingesting large doses as in the use of cholestyramine to reduce cholesterol. The unique advantage of ion exchange resins is due to the fixed positively or negatively charged functional groups attached to water insoluble polymer backbone. These groups have an affinity for oppositely charged counter ions, thus absorbing the ions into the polymer matrix. Since most drug posses ionic sites in their molecule, the resin's charge provides a means to loosely bind such drugs and this complex prevents the drug release in the saliva, thus resulting in the taste masking. For taste masking purpose weak cation exchange or weak anion exchange resins are used, depending on the nature of drug. The nature of the drug resin complex formed is such that the average pH of 6.7 and cation concentration of about 40meq/L in the saliva are not able to break the drug resin complex but it is weak enough to break down by hydrochloric acid present in the stomach. Thus the drug resin complex is absolutely tasteless and with no after taste, but at the same time its Bioavailability was not affected.
Types of Ion Exchange Resins
Ion exchange resins contain positively or negatively charged sites and are accordingly classified as either cationic or anionic exchanger. Within each category, they are further classified as strong or weak depending on their affinity for soluble counterions.The functional group in cation exchanger and anion exchanger undergoes reaction with the cations and anions of the surrounding solution respectively. The strong cation exchanger contains sulphuric acid sites [Dowex-50] where as weak cation exchanger [Amberlite IRC-50, Indion 204] are based on carboxylic acid moieties. The strong anion exchange resins [Dowex-1] have quaternary amine ionic sites attached to the matrix, whereas weak anion exchanger [Amberlite IR 4B] has predominantly tertiary amine substituents.
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